Did you know that chimpanzees are great apes and not monkeys?
- Great apes include chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and bonobos. There are several differences between great apes and monkeys.
- Great apes don’t have tails, while most monkeys do.
- Apes generally have larger bodies and bigger brains than monkeys. The bodies of apes are built for different forms of locomotion – swinging the arms, knuckle-walking, and walking on the soles of their feet.
- The upper body of an ape does not bend, the shoulder blades are back rather than on the sides, and they have long flexible arms and flexible elbows and wrists. Most monkeys cannot swing from branch to branch, as apes can, because their shoulder bones have a different structure. Instead, monkeys run along the tops of branches.
- Scientific name: Pan troglodytes (cave dweller)
- Four geographically distinct populations
- Pan troglodytes verus – western Africa
- Pan troglodytes troglodytes – central Africa
- Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii – eastern Africa
- Pan troglodytes vellerosus – Nigeria and Cameroon
- Height – 3 to 5 feet
- Weight – females: 70-100 lbs in wild; 66-176 lbs in captivity
- males: 90-130 lbs in wild; 150-200 lbs in captivity
- Habitat – tropical rain forests to woodland savanna and grasslands
- Diet – omnivorous, eat more than 250 different food types
- Lifespan – 40-50 in wild; 50-60 in captivity
- Status – Endangered in wild
- Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than they are even to gorillas
Chimpanzees are currently found in 21 African countries – from the west coast of the continent to as far east as western Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania.
The greatest number of chimpanzees is located in the rain forests along the equator. They can also be found in open woodlands, bamboo forests, swamp forests, and even open savannah where there are some forested areas. In savannah areas, they rarely venture far into the grassland except to move from one forest patch to another.
There is a dominance hierarchy among chimpanzees in a community. There is an alpha-male of the group; and females also have a dominance hierarchy.
The Alpha Male – the dominant male in a social group
- Displays: The dominant male often charges and displays by bristling his hair, dragging or shaking branches and banging or stomping on whatever he can find. These displays make the male look powerful and large, often more so than he may actually be. Males will often use objects during these powerful displays.
- Coalitions: Power-wielding coalitions are formed between individuals of both sexes. The ability for a male to enlist support during conflict is one of the most important factors in attaining and maintaining his rank. A male does not have to be the largest or the strongest of the group to attain alpha status – a smart, cunning male that knows how to manipulate social situations may gain the top position with the appropriate allies and friends. The alpha male typically keeps the peace in the group by settling disputes and maintaining social order. Most disputes within a community can be solved by threats rather than actual attacks.
- Advantages of being alpha male: Alpha males frequently take meat and preferred foods from others. Access to females and the reproductive benefits that follow are one of the biggest advantages of being the alpha male. Alpha tenure lasts between three and 10 years, and only a few males achieve top rank.
Chimpanzees are territorial
- In the wild, they may wage “war” on neighboring communities.
- Home territories can range from 30 to 150 square miles.
- Males patrol boundaries of their home range.
- Males will make short trips into neighboring territories in search of enemies.
- Strangers are not well received in established communities, except in the case of a female who is ready to mate.
- A meeting between two rival groups can result in serious injuries and even death.